When programming a CNC vertical lathe, the cutting amount for each process must be determined. When choosing cutting parameters, we must fully consider various factors that affect cutting, choose the correct cutting conditions, and reasonably determine the cutting parameters, which can effectively improve the machining quality and output.
Generally, the factors affecting cutting conditions are the rigidity of machine tools, tools, cutting tools and workpieces; cutting speed, depth of cut, cutting feed rate; workpiece accuracy and surface roughness; tool life expectancy and maximum productivity; cutting fluid types and cooling methods; The hardness and heat treatment status of the workpiece material; the number of workpieces; the life of the machine tool.
Different tool materials have different maximum allowable cutting speeds. The high temperature resistant cutting speed of high-speed steel tools is less than 50m/min, the high temperature resistant cutting speed of carbide tools can reach more than 100m/min, and the high temperature resistant cutting speed of ceramic tools can be as high as 1000m/min. Workpiece material. The hardness of the workpiece material will affect the cutting speed of the tool. When the same tool is processing hard materials, the cutting speed should be reduced, and when processing softer materials, the cutting speed can be increased. Tool life. If the tool service time (life) is long, a lower cutting speed should be used. Conversely, a higher cutting speed can be used. Cutting depth and feed amount. The cutting depth and the feed amount are large, the cutting resistance is also large, and the cutting heat will increase, so the cutting speed should be reduced. The shape of the tool. The shape of the tool, the size of the angle, and the sharpness of the cutting edge will affect the selection of cutting speed.
Among the above factors, the cutting speed, depth of cut and cutting feed rate of CNC vertical lathe are the main factors. The cutting speed directly affects the cutting efficiency. If the cutting speed is too low, the cutting time will be longer and the tool cannot perform its function; if the cutting speed is too fast, although the cutting time can be shortened, the tool is prone to high heat generation, which affects the life of the tool. Among the factors that affect the cutting speed, the material of the tool is the most important. The cutting depth is mainly restricted by the rigidity of the machine tool. When the rigidity of the machine tool allows, the cutting depth should be as large as possible. If it is not limited by the machining accuracy, the cutting depth can be equal to the machining allowance of the part.